Information used for the LAG report (2010-2015)

Relevant resources and information used frequently during the considerations of the Lead Ammunition Group

Resources (2010-2015)

  1. Guidelines for environmental risk assessment and management: Green Leaves III
    Defra and the University of Cranfield
    November 2011
  2. Lead dietary exposure in the European population
    European Food Safety Authority
    July 2012
  3. Habits and behaviours of high-level consumers of lead-shot wild-game meat in Scotland
    Food Standards Agency
    February 2012
  4. Advice to frequent eaters of game shot with lead
    Food Standards Agency
    October 2012
  5. Risk to human health from exposure to lead from lead bullets and shot used to shoot wild game animals
    Food Standards Agency
    October 2012
  6. The EFSA scientific opinion on lead in food
    Food Standards Agency (Dr Diane Benford)
    September 2010
  7. Review of evidence concerning the contamination of wildlife and the environment arising from the use of lead ammunition – report
    Food and Environment Research Agency (Roger Quy)
    April 2010
  8. Review of evidence concerning the contamination of wildlife and the environment arising from the use of lead ammunition – presentation
    Food and Environment Research Agency (Roger Quy)
    May 2010
  9. A systematic approach for evaluating the quality of experimental toxicological and ecotoxicological data
    Klimisch, H. J. et al in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 25, 1-5
    February 1997
  10. Primary Evidence List
    Lead Ammunition Group: Primary Evidence and Risk Assessment Subgroup
    April 2014

New Information

Published since submission of the Lead Ammunition Group Report in June 2015 of relevance to its conclusions

Risks to Wildlife

  1. Lesser white-fronted (Anser erythropus) and greater white-fronted ( albifrons) geese wintering in Greek wetlands are not threatened by Pb through shot ingestion
    Aloupi M, Kazantzidis S, Akriotis T, Bantikou E, Hatzidaki VO
    Science of the Total Environment, 2015
  2. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)
    Álvarez-Lloret P, Rodríguez-Navarro AB, Romanek CS, Ferrandis P, Martínez-Haro M, Mateo R
    Science of the Total Environment, 2014
  3. Chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern North America
    Behmke S, Fallon J, Duerr AE, Lehner A, Buchweitz J, Katzner T
    Environment International, 2015
  4. Embedded lead shots in birds of prey: the hidden threat
    Berny PJ, Mas E, Vey D
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017
  5. Vigilance poison: illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France)
    Berny P, Vilagines L, Cugnasse JM, Mastain O, Chollet JY, Joncour G, Razin M
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2015
  6. Widespread ingestion of lead pellets by wild chukars in Northwestern Utah
    Bingham RJ, Larsen RT, Bissonette JA, Hall JO
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2015
  7. Lead isotope ratio measurements as indicators for the source of lead poisoning in Mute swans (Cygnus olor) wintering in Puck Bay (northern Poland)
    Binkowski ŁJ, Meissner W, Trzeciak M, Izevbekhai K, Barker J
    Chemosphere, 2016
  8. Lead poisoning due to lead-pellet ingestion in Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from the Iberian Peninsula
    Carneiro MA, Oliveira PA, Brandão R, Francisco ON, Velarde R, Lavín S, Colaço B
    Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2016
  9. Assessment of the exposure to heavy metals in Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from the Iberian Peninsula
    Carneiro M, Colaço B, Brandão R, Azorín B, Nicolas O, Colaço J, Pires MJ, Agustí S, Casas-Díaz E, Lavin S, Oliveira PA
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2015
  10. Biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb) and metalloid (As) with the Portuguese common buzzard (Buteo buteo)
    Carneiro M, Colaço B, Brandão R, Ferreira C, Santos N, Soeiro V, Colaço A, Pires MJ, Oliveira PA, Lavín S
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2014
  11. Quantitative assessment of bullet fragments in viscera of sheep carcasses as surrogates for white-tailed deer
    Cruz-Martinez L, Grund MD, Redig PT
    Human-Wildlife Interactions, 2015
  12. Sublethal lead exposure alters movement behavior in free-ranging golden eagles
    Ecke F, Singh NJ, Arnemo JM, Bignert A, Helander B, Berglund ÅMM, Borg H, Bröjer C, Holm K, Lanzone M, Miller T, Nordström Å, Räikkönen J, Rodushkin I, Ågren E, Hörnfeldt B
    Environmental Science and Technology, 2017
  13. Choroidal vasculopathy and retinal detachment in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with lead toxicosis
    Eid R, Guzman DS-M, Keller KA, Wiggans KT, Murphy CJ, LaDouceur EEB, Keel MK, Reilly CM
    Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2016
  14. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)
    Espín S, Martínez-López E, Jiménez P, María-Mojica P, García-Fernández AJ
    Environmental Research, 2014
  15. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina
    Ferreyra H, Beldomenico PM, Marchese K, Romano M, Caselli A, Correa AI, Uhart M
    Ecotoxicology, 2015
  16. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots
    Ferreyra H, Romano M, Beldomenico P, Caselli A, Correa A, Uhart M
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2014
  17. Lead exposure risk from trash ingestion by the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus)
    Finkelstein ME, Brandt J, Sandhaus E, Grantham J, Mee A, Schuppert PJ, Smith DR
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2015
  18. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis
    Finkelstein ME, Kuspa ZE, Welch A, Eng C, Clark M, Burnett J, Smith DR
    Environmental Research, 2014
  19. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality
    Franson JC, Russell RE
    Ecotoxicology, 2014
  20. Association between hunting and elevated blood lead levels in the critically endangered African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus
    Garbett R, Maude G, Hancock P, Kenny D, Reading R, Amar A
    Science of The Total Environment, 2018
  21. From sport hunting to breeding success: patterns of lead ammunition ingestion and its effects on an endangered raptor
    Gil-Sánchez JM, Molleda S, Sánchez-Zapata JA, Bautista J, Navas I, Godinho R, García-Fernández AJ, Moleón M
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  22. A review and assessment of spent lead ammunition and its exposure and effects to scavenging birds in the United States
    Golden NH, Warner SE, Coffey MJ
    Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2016
  23. Levels of blood lead in Griffon vultures from a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Spain
    González F, López I, Suarez L, Moraleda V, Rodríguez C
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2017
  24. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle
    Haig SM, D’Elia J, Eagles-Smith C, Fair JM, Gervais J, Herring G, Rivers JW, Schulz JH
    Condor, 2014
  25. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers
    Herring G, Eagles-Smith CA, Wagner MT
    PLoS ONE, 2016
  26. Acute lead poisoning in a Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in Israel
    Horowitz IH, Yanco E, Nadler R V., Anglister N, Landau S, Elias R, Lublin A, Perl S, Edery N, Rosenzweig AB
    Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2014
  27. Lead exposure in raptors from Japan and source identification using Pb stable isotope ratios
    Ishii C, Nakayama SMM, Ikenaka Y, Nakata H, Saito K, Watanabe Y, Mizukawa H, Tanabe S, Nomiyama K, Hayashi T, Ishizuka M
    Chemosphere, 2017
  28. Lead poisoning and other human-related factors cause significant mortality in white-tailed eagles
    Isomursu, M., Koivusaari, J., Stjernberg, T., Hirvelä-Koski, V. & Venäläinen, E. R.
    Ambio, 2018
  29. The frequency distribution of lead concentration in feathers, blood, bone, kidney and liver of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos: insights into the modes of uptake
    Jenni L, Madry MM, Kraemer T, Kupper J, Naegeli H, Jenny H, Jenny D
    Journal of Ornithology, 2015
  30. Brains of native and alien mesocarnivores in biomonitoring of toxic metals in Europe
    Kalisinska E, Lanocha-Arendarczyk N, Kosik-Bogacka D, Budis H, Podlasinska J, Popiolek M, Pirog A, Jedrzejewska E
    PLoS ONE, 2016
  31. Concentrations of lead and other elements in the liver of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), a European flagship species, wintering in Eastern Poland
    Kitowski I, Jakubas D, Wiącek D, Sujak A
    Ambio, 2017
  32. Trace element concentrations in livers of common buzzards Buteo buteo from eastern Poland
    Kitowski I, Jakubas D, Wiącek D, Sujak A, Pitucha G
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2017
  33. Lead toxicosis in a southern ground hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri in South Africa
    Koeppel KN, Kemp L V
    Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2015
  34. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America
    Langner HW, Domenech R, Slabe VA, Sullivan SP
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2015
  35. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success
    Legagneux P, Suffice P, Messier JS, Lelievre F, Tremblay JA, Maisonneuve C, Saint-Louis R, Bêty J
    PLoS ONE, 2014
  36. Influence of snowfall on blood lead levels of free-flying bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Upper Mississippi River Valley
    Lindblom RA, Reichart LM, Mandernack BA, Solensky M, Schoenebeck CW, Redig PT
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2017
  37. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps
    Madry MM, Kraemer T, Kupper J, Naegeli H, Jenny H, Jenni L, Jenny D
    Environmental Research Letters, 2015
  38. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe
    Mateo R, Petkov N, Lopez-Antia A, Rodríguez-Estival J, Green AJ
    Environmental Research, 2016
  39. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation
    Mateo-Tomás P, Olea PP, Jiménez-Moreno M, Camarero PR, Sánchez-Barbudo IS, Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios RC, Mateo R
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2016
  40. Poisoning of reintroduced red kites (Milvus milvus) in England
    Molenaar FM, Jaffe JE, Carter I, Barnett EA, Shore RF, Marcus Rowcliffe J, Sainsbury AW
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017
  41. Monitoring contaminants, emerging infectious diseases and environmental change with raptors, and links to human health
    Movalli P, Krone O, Osborn D, Pain D
    Bird Study, 2018
  42. Lead exposure and food processing in white-tailed eagles and other scavengers: an experimental approach to simulate lead uptake at shot mammalian carcasses
    Nadjafzadeh M, Hofer H, Krone O
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2015
  43. Spatial, seasonal and individual variation in the diet of white-tailed eagles Haliaeetus albicilla assessed using stable isotope ratios
    Nadjafzadeh M, Voigt CC, Krone O
    Ibis, 2016
  44. Lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern Africa
    Naidoo V, Wolter K, Botha CJ
    Environmental Research, 2017
  45. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain
    Newth JL, Rees EC, Cromie RL, McDonald RA, Bearhop S, Pain DJ, Norton GJ, Deacon C, Hilton GM
    Environmental Pollution, 2016
  46. Ultrastructural study of liver and lead tissue concentrations in young mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after ingestion of single lead shot
    Pineau A, Fauconneau B, Plouzeau E, Fernandez B, Quellard N, Levillain P, Guillard O
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2017
  47. Implications of mercury and lead concentrations on breeding physiology and phenology in an Arctic bird
    Provencher JF, Forbes MR, Hennin HL, Love OP, Braune BM, Mallory ML, Gilchrist HG
    Environmental Pollution, 2016
  48. Chronic lead intoxication decreases intestinal helminth species richness and infection intensity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)
    Prüter H, Franz M, Auls S, Czirják GÁ, Greben O, Greenwood AD, Lisitsyna O, Syrota Y, Sitko J, Krone O
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  49. Toxicity assessment on the levels of select metals in the critically endangered Indian white-backed vulture, Gyps bengalensis, in India
    Rajamani J, Subramanian M
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2015
  50. Spent lead shot availability and ingestion by ring-necked pheasants in South Dakota
    Runia TJ, Solem AJ
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2016
  51. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013
    Russell RE, Franson JC
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2014
  52. Evidence of high tolerance to ecologically relevant lead shot pellet exposures by an upland bird
    Tannenbaum L
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2014
  53. Altered immune response in mallard ducklings exposed to lead through maternal transfer in the wild
    Vallverdú-Coll N, López-Antia A, Martinez-Haro M, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Mateo R
    Environmental Pollution, 2015
  54. Effects of lead exposure on sperm quality and reproductive success in an avian model
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Mougeot F, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Castaño C, Santiago-Moreno J, Mateo R
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2016
  55. Lead exposure reduces carotenoid-based coloration and constitutive immunity in wild mallards
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Mougeot F, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Rodriguez-Estival J, López-Antia A, Mateo R
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2016
  56. Sublethal Pb exposure produces season-dependent effects on immune response, oxidative balance and investment in carotenoid-based coloration in red-legged partridges
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Mougeot F, Vidal D, Mateo R
    Environmental Science and Technology, 2015
  57. Bald eagle lead exposure in the Upper Midwest
    Warner SE, Britton EE, Becker DN, Coffey MJ
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2014
  58. Feasibility of California condor recovery in northern California, USA: contaminants in surrogate turkey vultures and common ravens
    West CJ, Wolfe JD, Wiegardt A, Williams-Claussen T
    The Condor, 2017
  59. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: high levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean condor widen the problem to a continental scale
    Wiemeyer GM, Pérez MA, Torres Bianchini L, Sampietro L, Bravo GF, Jácome NL, Astore V, Lambertucci SA
    Environmental Pollution, 2017
  60. Lead poisoning in bald eagles admitted to wildlife rehabilitation facilities in Iowa, 2004-2014
    Yaw T, Neumann K, Bernard L, Cancilla J, Evans T, Martin-Schwarze A, Zaffarano B
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2017

Population Level Effects

  1. Effects of lead exposure, environmental conditions, and metapopulation processes on population dynamics of spectacled eiders
    Flint PL, Grand JB, Petersen MR, Rockwell RF
    North American Fauna, 2016
  2. Population-level effects of lead fishing tackle on common loons
    Grade TJ, Pokras MA, Laflamme EM, Vogel HS
    The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2018
  3. Possible effects of ingested lead gunshot on populations of ducks wintering in the UK
    Green RE, Pain DJ
    Ibis, 2016
  4. Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for lead exposure in endangered California condors during 15 years of reintroduction
    Kelly TR, Grantham J, George D, Welch A, Brandt J, Burnett LJ, Sorenson KJ, Johnson M, Poppenga R, Moen D, Rasico J, Rivers JW, Battistone C & Johnson CK
    Conservation Biology, 2014
  5. Can ingestion of lead shot and poisons change population trends of three European birds: grey partridge, common buzzard, and red kite?
    Meyer CB, Meyer JS, Francisco AB, Holder J, Verdonck F
    PLoS ONE, 2016

Risks to Human Health

  1. Hunting, sale, and consumption of bushmeat killed by lead-based ammunition in Benin
    Ahmadi S, Maman S, Zoumenou R, Massougbodji A, Cot M, Glorennec P, Bodeau-Livinec F
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018
  2. Lead ammunition residues in the meat of hunted woodcock: a potential health risk to consumers
    Andreotti A, Borghesi F, Aradis A
    Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2016
  3. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape
    Boutwell BB, Nelson EJ, Qian Z, Vaughn MG, Wright JP, Beaver KM, Barnes JC, Petkovsek M, Lewis R, Schootman M, Rosenfeld R
    PLoS One, 2017
  4. Eliminating potential lead exposure in imported New Zealand wild game
    Buenz EJ
    Public Health, 2016
  5. Lead exposure through eating wild game
    Buenz EJ
    The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
  6. Chronic lead intoxication from eating wild-harvested game
    Buenz EJ, Parry GJ
    American Journal of Medicine, 2017
  7. Retained lumbar bullet: a case report of chronic lead toxicity and review of the literature
    Bustamante ND, Macias-Konstantopoulos WL
    Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2016
  8. Blood lead concentrations as a result of retained lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria
    Edetanlen BE, Saheeb BD
    British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2016
  9. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria
    Ertl K, Kitzer R, Goessler W
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 2016
  10. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception
    Fachehoun RC, Lévesque B, Dumas P, St-Louis A, Dubé M, Ayotte P
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2015
  11. Lead in game bird meat as a risk to public health: new aspects in the light of physical phenomena generated by a projectile
    Felsmann MZ, Szarek J, Felsmann M, Gulda D
    Journal of Elementology, 2016
  12. Wild game consumption habits among Italian shooters: relevance for intakes of cadmium, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid, and 137cesium as priority contaminants
    Ferri M, Baldi L, Cavallo S, Pellicanò R, Brambilla G
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2017
  13. Identification of environmental sources of lead exposure in Nunavut (Canada) using stable isotope analyses
    Fillion M, Blais JM, Yumvihoze E, Nakajima M, Workman P, Osborne G, Chan HM
    Environment International, 2014
  14. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy
    Fustinoni S, Sucato S, Consonni D, Mannucci PM, Moretto A
    Environmental Research, 2017
  15. Risk assessment of dietary lead exposure among First Nations people living on-reserve in Ontario, Canada using a total diet study and a probabilistic approach
    Juric AK, Batal M, David W, Sharp D, Schwartz H, Ing A, Fediuk K, Black A, Tikhonov C, Chan HM, Chan L
    Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2018
  16. Congenital lead poisoning in three siblings from a mother with retained bullet fragments
    Karpen SR, Hurst NB, Plitt J, Chase P, Shirazi FM
    Clinical Toxicology, 2015
  17. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets
    Kollander B, Widemo F, Ågren E, Larsen EH, Loeschner K
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2017
  18. Lead exposure at firing ranges – a review
    Laidlaw MAS, Filippelli G, Mielke H, Gulson B, Ball AS
    Environmental Health, 2017
  19. Lead and the heart: an ancient metal’s contribution to modern disease
    Landrigan PJ
    The Lancet: Public Health, 2018
  20. Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study
    Lanphear BP, Rauch S, Auinger P, Allen RW, Hornung RW
    The Lancet: Public Health, 2018
  21. Toxic heavy metals in the muscle of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) – food toxicological significance
    Lehel J, Laczay P, Gyurcsó A, Jánoska F, Majoros S, Lányi K, Marosán M
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2016
  22. Source identification of human exposure to lead in nine Cree Nations from Quebec, Canada (Eeyou Istchee territory)
    Liberda EN, Tsuji LJ, Martin ID, Ayotte P, Robinson E, Dewailly E, Nieboer E
    Environmental Research, 2018
  23. Comparison of lead levels in edible parts of red deer hunted with lead or non-lead ammunition
    Martin A, Müller-Graf C, Selhorst T, Gerofke A, Ulbig E, Gremse C, Greiner M, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M, Hensel A
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  24. Systemic lead poisoning in an infant after gunshot injury to the spine and brain
    Montague A, Orozco B
    Clinical Toxicology, 2017
  25. Is there a relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in shooters?
    Naicker N, de Jager P, Naidoo S, Mathee A
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018
  26. Occupational lead exposure from indoor firing ranges in Korea
    Park WJ, Lee SH, Lee SH, Yoon HS, Moon JD
    Journal of Korean Medical Science, 2016
  27. Association of childhood blood lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood
    Reuben A, Caspi A, Belsky DW, Broadbent J, Harrington H, Sugden K, Houts RM, Ramrakha S, Poulton R, Moffitt TE
    JAMA, 2017
  28. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers
    Rocha ED, Sarkis JES, Carvalho MDH, dos Santos GV, Canesso C
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2014
  29. Essential and toxic elements in meat of wild birds
    Roselli C, Desideri D, Meli MA, Fagiolino I, Feduzi L
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2016
  30. Proximal muscle weakness in severe lead poisoning from retained bullet fragments
    Srisuma S, Lavonas EJ, Wananukul W
    Clinical Toxicology, 2015
  31. Metal deposition of copper and lead bullets in moose harvested in Fennoscandia
    Stokke S, Brainerd S, Arnemo JM
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2017
  32. Lead in minced beef from Norwegian hunted game, Elk (Alces alces)
    Vogt G, Tysnes EA
    Eurofins, 2015
  33. Elevated blood lead levels associated with retained bullet fragments – United States, 2003-2012
    Weiss D, Tomasallo CD, Meiman JG, Alarcon W, Graber NM, Bisgard KM, Anderson HA
    MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2017

Risk to Domestic and Captive Animals

  1. Disease surveillance in England and Wales
    APHA Surveillance Report
    Veterinary Record, 2016
  2. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game
    Høgåsen HR, Ørnsrud R, Knutsen HK, Bernhoft A
    BMC Veterinary Research, 2016
  3. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013
    North MA, Lane EP, Marnewick K, Caldwell P, Carlisle G, Hoffman LC
    Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 2015
  4. Lead intoxication incidents associated with shot from clay pigeon shooting
    Payne JH, Holmes JP, Hogg RA, van der Burgt GM, Jewell NJ, Welchman D de B
    The Veterinary Record, 2013
  5. Ingestion of a single 2.3 mm lead pellet by laying roller pigeon hens reduces egg size and adversely affects F1 generation hatchlings
    Williams RJ, Tannenbaum LV, Williams SM, Holladay SD, Tuckfield RC, Sharma A, Humphrey DJ, Gogal RM
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2017

Environmental Contamination

  1. The influence of environmental conditions on lead transfer from spent gunshot to sediments and water: other routes for Pb poisoning
    Binkowski ŁJ
    Chemosphere, 2017
  2. Density of lead and nontoxic shotshell pellets in Gulf Coast prairie ricelands
    Marty JR, Davis JB, Brasher MG, Kaminski RM, Brinkman EL
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2017
  3. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina
    Romano M, Ferreyra H, Ferreyroa G, Molina FV, Caselli A, Barberis I, Beldoménico P, Uhart M
    Science of the Total Environment, 2016

Ecological Impacts, Contamination, and Mitigation in Firing Ranges

  1. Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range
    Mariussen E, Heier LS, Teien HC, Pettersen MN, Holth TF, Salbu B, Rosseland BO
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2017
  2. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires
    Mariussen E, Johnsen IV, Strømseng AE
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017
  3. Application of sorbents in different soil types from small arms shooting ranges for immobilization of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb)
    Mariussen E, Johnsen IV, Strømseng AE
    Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2018
  4. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide
    Mariussen E, Johnsen IV, Strømseng AE
    Journal of Environmental Management, 2015
  5. Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study
    Okkenhaug G, Grasshorn Gebhardt KA, Amstaetter K, Lassen Bue H, Herzel H, Mariussen E, Rossebø Almås Å, Cornelissen G, Breedveld GD, Rasmussen G, Mulder J
    Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2016
  6. Shooting range contamination: mobility and transport of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) in contaminated peatland
    Okkenhaug G, Smebye AB, Pabst T, Amundsen CE, Sævarsson H, Breedveld GD
    Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2018
  7. Lead and PAHs contamination of an old shooting range: a case study with a holistic approach
    Rodríguez-Seijo A, Cachada A, Gavina A, Duarte AC, Vega FA, Andrade ML, Pereira R
    Science of the Total Environment, 2017
  8. Pollution and risk assessment of potential hazardous elements in a shooting range soils (NW Spain)
    Rodríguez-Seijo A, Lago-Vila M, Arenas-Lago D, Andrade ML, Vega FA
    Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 2016
  9. Copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc levels and pollution degree in firing range soils
    Rodríguez-Seijo A, Alfaya MC, Andrade ML, Vega FA
    Land Degradation and Development, 2016
  10. Lead pollution of shooting range soils
    Sehube N, Kelebemang R, Totolo O, Laetsang M, Kamwi O, Dinake P
    South African Journal of Chemistry, 2017
  11. Assessing lead, nickel, and zinc pollution in topsoil from a historic shooting range rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park
    Urrutia-Goyes R, Argyraki A, Ornelas-Soto N
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2017

Alternatives to Lead


  1. Switch to non-toxic shot in the Camargue, France: effect on waterbird contamination and hunter effectiveness
    Mondain-Monval JY, Defos du Rau P, Guillemain M, Olivier A
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2015
  2. A comparison of lead and steel shot loads for harvesting mourning doves
    Pierce BL, Roster TA, Frisbie MC, Mason CD, Roberson JA
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2015


  1. Reducing impacts from ammunitions: a comparative life-cycle assessment of four types of 9 mm ammunitions
    Ferreira C, Ribeiro J, Almada S, Rotariu T, Freire F
    Science of the Total Environment, 2016
  2. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap
    Gremse F, Krone O, Thamm M, Kiessling F, Tolba RH, Rieger S, Gremse C
    PLoS ONE, 2014
  3. Efficacy of non-lead rifle ammunition for hunting in Denmark
    Kanstrup N, Balsby TJS, Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  4. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?
    Martin A, Gremse C, Selhorst T, Bandick N, Müller-Graf C, Greiner M, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M
    PLoS ONE, 2017
  5. Efficacy of non-lead ammunition for culling elk at Theodore Roosevelt National Park
    McCann BE, Whitworth W, Newman RA
    Human-Wildlife Interactions, 2016
  6. Better bullets to shoot small mammals without poisoning scavengers
    McTee M, Young M, Umansky A, Ramsey P
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2017
  7. Nickel and copper residues in meat from wild artiodactyls hunted with nickel-plated non-lead rifle bullets
    Paulsen P, Sager M
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017
  8. Estimating lead fragmentation from ammunition for muzzleloading and black powder cartridge rifles
    Sanchez DM, Epps CW, Taylor DS
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2016

Toxicity from Lead and Non-lead Alternatives

  1. Comparing acute toxicity of gunshot particles, from firing conventional and lead-free ammunition, in pulmonary epithelial cell cultures
    Bergström U, Ekstrand-Hammarström B, Hägglund L, Wingfors H
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2015
  2. Leaching behavior and ecotoxicological effects of different game shot materials in freshwater
    Fäth J, Feiner M, Beggel S, Geist J, Göttlein A
    Knowledge & Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 2018
  3. Characterization of exposure to byproducts from firing lead-free frangible ammunition in an enclosed, ventilated firing range
    Grabinski CM, Methner MM, Jackson JM, Moore AL, Flory LE, Tilly T, Hussain SM, Ott DK
    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2017
  4. Evaluation of exposure to airborne heavy metals at gun shooting ranges
    Lach K, Steer B, Gorbunov B, Mička V, Muir R
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2015
  5. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition – implications for consumer health protection
    Schlichting D, Sommerfeld C, Müller-Graf C, Selhorst T, Greiner M, Gerofke A, Ulbig E, Gremse C, Spolders M, Schafft H, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M
    PLoS ONE, 2017
  6. Elemental tungsten, tungsten–nickel alloys and shotgun ammunition: resolving issues of their relative toxicity
    Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  7. Health effects after firing small arms comparing leaded and unleaded ammunition
    Voie Ø, Borander AK, Sikkeland LIB, Grahnstedt S, Johnsen A, Danielsen TE, Longva K, Kongerud J
    Inhalation Toxicology, 2014

Policy and Regulation

  1. Health and environmental risks from lead-based ammunition: science versus socio-politics
    Arnemo JM, Andersen O, Stokke S, Thomas VG, Krone O, Pain DJ, Mateo R
    EcoHealth, 2016
  2. Non-lead ammunition may reduce lead levels in wild game
    Buenz EJ
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016
  3. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations
    Kanstrup N, Thomas VG, Krone O, Gremse C
    Ambio, 2016
  4. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation
    Mateo R, Vallverdú-Coll N, López-Antia A, Taggart MA, Martínez-Haro M, Guitart R, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME
    Environment International, 2014
  5. Problems created by the continuing use of lead ammunition in game hunting
    Newton, I
    British Birds, 2016
  6. Design of non-lead rifle bullets to allow instant identification
    Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  7. Exposure to lead through ammunition: need to revise policies
    Thomas VG, Guitart R
    Environmental Policy & Law, 2016

Economic and Social Considerations

  1. Economic assessment of wild bird mortality induced by the use of lead gunshot in European wetlands
    Andreotti A, Guberti V, Nardelli R, Pirrello S, Serra L, Volponi S, Green RE
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  2. Health and environmental risks from lead-based ammunition: science versus socio-politics
    Arnemo JM, Andersen O, Stokke S, Thomas VG, Krone O, Pain DJ, Mateo R
    EcoHealth, 2016
  3. Considering the switch: challenges of transitioning to non-lead hunting ammunition
    Epps CW
    The Condor, 2014
  4. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe
    Thomas VG, Gremse C, Kanstrup N
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016

Efficacy of Mitigation

  1. Reducing lead on the landscape: anticipating hunter behavior in absence of a free nonlead ammunition program
    Chase L, Rabe MJ
    PLoS ONE, 2015
  2. Shot ingestion by wintering female northern pintails (Anas acuta) in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2012–14
    Huck NR, Ballard BM, Fedynich AM, Kraai KJ, Castro ME
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2016
  3. Two decades of cumulative impacts to survivorship of endangered California condors in California
    Kelly TR, Rideout BA, Grantham J, Brandt J, Burnett LJ, Sorenson KJ, George D, Welch A, Moen D, Rasico J, Johnson M, Battistone C, Johnson CK
    Biological Conservation, 2015

The Lead Ammunition Group welcomes new insights and opinions on the evidence above

We welcome new sources of information, especially peer reviewed studies and reports from around the world. Information based on direct personal experience of using non-lead ammunition is also of interest to us. Please use the form below to give precise references and sources of new information if possible. Please note that although we will read all comments we may not be able to reply to all.

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