Relevant resources and information used frequently during the considerations of the Lead Ammunition Group

  1. Guidelines for environmental risk assessment and management: Green Leaves III
    Defra and the University of Cranfield
    November 2011
  2. Lead dietary exposure in the European population
    European Food Safety Authority
    July 2012
  3. Habits and behaviours of high-level consumers of lead-shot wild-game meat in Scotland
    Food Standards Agency
    February 2012
  4. Advice to frequent eaters of game shot with lead
    Food Standards Agency
    October 2012
  5. Risk to human health from exposure to lead from lead bullets and shot used to shoot wild game animals
    Food Standards Agency
    October 2012
  6. The EFSA scientific opinion on lead in food
    Food Standards Agency (Dr Diane Benford)
    September 2010
  7. Review of evidence concerning the contamination of wildlife and the environment arising from the use of lead ammunition – report
    Food and Environment Research Agency (Roger Quy)
    April 2010
  8. Review of evidence concerning the contamination of wildlife and the environment arising from the use of lead ammunition – presentation
    Food and Environment Research Agency (Roger Quy)
    May 2010
  9. A systematic approach for evaluating the quality of experimental toxicological and ecotoxicological data
    Klimisch, H. J. et al in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 25, 1-5
    February 1997
  10. Primary Evidence List
    Lead Ammunition Group: Primary Evidence and Risk Assessment Subgroup
    April 2014

Further Resources

Published since submission of the Lead Ammunition Group Report in June 2015 of relevance to its conclusions

Evidence relating to risks from lead ammunition

  1. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France)
    Berny P, Vilagines L, Cugnasse J-M, Mastain O, Chollet J-Y, Joncour G, Razin M
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, April 2015
  2. Lead exposure through eating wild game
    Buenz EJ
    The American Journal of Medicine, May 2016
  3. Possible effects of ingested lead gunshot on populations of ducks wintering in the UK
    Green RE, Pain DJ
    Ibis, August 2016
  4. Can ingestion of lead shot and poisons change population trends of three European birds: grey partridge, common buzzard, and red kite?
    Meyer CB, Meyer JS, Francisco AB, Holder J, Verdonck F
    PLoS ONE, January 2016
  5. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain
    Newth JL, Rees EC, Cromie RL, McDonald RA, Bearhop S, Pain DJ, Norton GJ, Deacon C, Hilton GM
    Environmental Pollution, February 2015
  6. Lead exposure reduces carotenoid‐based coloration and constitutive immunity in wild mallards
    Vallverdú‐Coll N, Mougeot F, Ortiz‐Santaliestra ME, Rodriguez‐Estival J, López‐Antia A, Mateo R
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2015

Risk mitigation and non-toxic ammunition issues

  1. Efficacy of non-lead rifle ammunition for hunting in Denmark
    Kanstrup N, Balsby TJ, Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, January 2016
  2. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations
    Kanstrup N, Thomas VG, Krone O, Gremse C
    Ambio, April 2016
  3. Elemental tungsten, tungsten–nickel alloys and shotgun ammunition: resolving issues of their relative toxicity
    Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, December 2015
  4. Design of non-lead rifle bullets to allow instant identification
    Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, September 2016
  5. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe
    Thomas VG, Gremse C, Kanstrup N
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, August 2016

Policy and other issues

  1. Health and environmental risks from lead-based ammunition: science versus socio-politics
    Arnemo JM, Andersen O, Stokke S, Thomas VG, Krone O, Pain DJ, Mateo R
    EcoHealth, September 2016
  2. Problems created by the continuing use of lead ammunition in game hunting
    Newton, I
    British Birds, March 2016

The Lead Ammunition Group welcomes new insights and opinions on the evidence above

We welcome new sources of information, especially peer reviewed studies and reports from around the world. Information based on direct personal experience of using non-lead ammunition is also of interest to us. Please use the form below to give precise references and sources of new information if possible. Please note that although we will read all comments we may not be able to reply to all.

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