Resources

Information used for the LAG report (2010-2015)

Relevant resources and information used frequently during the considerations of the Lead Ammunition Group

  1. Guidelines for environmental risk assessment and management: Green Leaves III
    Defra and the University of Cranfield
    November 2011
  2. Lead dietary exposure in the European population
    European Food Safety Authority
    July 2012
  3. Habits and behaviours of high-level consumers of lead-shot wild-game meat in Scotland
    Food Standards Agency
    February 2012
  4. Advice to frequent eaters of game shot with lead
    Food Standards Agency
    October 2012
  5. Risk to human health from exposure to lead from lead bullets and shot used to shoot wild game animals
    Food Standards Agency
    October 2012
  6. The EFSA scientific opinion on lead in food
    Food Standards Agency (Dr Diane Benford)
    September 2010
  7. Review of evidence concerning the contamination of wildlife and the environment arising from the use of lead ammunition – report
    Food and Environment Research Agency (Roger Quy)
    April 2010
  8. Review of evidence concerning the contamination of wildlife and the environment arising from the use of lead ammunition – presentation
    Food and Environment Research Agency (Roger Quy)
    May 2010
  9. A systematic approach for evaluating the quality of experimental toxicological and ecotoxicological data
    Klimisch, H. J. et al in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 25, 1-5
    February 1997
  10. Primary Evidence List
    Lead Ammunition Group: Primary Evidence and Risk Assessment Subgroup
    April 2014

New Information

Published since submission of the Lead Ammunition Group Report in June 2015 of relevance to its conclusions

  1. Scavenging by Owls: A Global Review and New Observations from Europe and North America
    Allen M, Ward M.P, Juznic D, Krofel, M
    Journal of Raptor Research, 2019
  2. Lesser white-fronted (Anser erythropus) and greater white-fronted (Anser albifrons) geese wintering in Greek wetlands are not threatened by Pb through shot ingestion
    Aloupi M, Kazantzidis S, Akriotis T, Bantikou E, Hatzidaki VO
    Science of the Total Environment, 2015
  3. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)
    Álvarez-Lloret P, Rodríguez-Navarro AB, Romanek CS, Ferrandis P, Martínez-Haro M, Mateo R
    Science of the Total Environment, 2014
  4. Disease surveillance in England and Wales
    APHA Disease Surveillance Report
    Vet Record, 2016
  5. Lead contamination in tissues of large avian scavengers in south-central Europe
    Bassi E, Facoetti R, Ferloni M, Pastorino A, Bianchi A, Fedrizzi G, Bertoletti I, Andreotti A
    Science of The Total Environment, 2021
  6. Assessment of bird exposure to lead at Tyndall and Beale Air Force Bases, 2016-17
    Bargar TA
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2019
  7. Chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern North America
    Behmke S, Fallon J, Duerr AE, Lehner A, Buchweitz J, Katzner T
    Environment International, 2015
  8. Embedded lead shots in birds of prey: the hidden threat
    Berny PJ, Mas E, Vey D
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017
  9. Relation of Waterfowl Poisoning to Sediment Lead Concentrations in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin
    Beyer WN, Audet DJ, Heinz GH, Hoffman DJ, Day D
    Ecotoxicology, 2000
  10. Vigilance poison: illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France)
    Berny P, Vilagines L, Cugnasse JM, Mastain O, Chollet JY, Joncour G, Razin M
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2015
  11. Widespread ingestion of lead pellets by wild chukars in Northwestern Utah
    Bingham RJ, Larsen RT, Bissonette JA, Hall JO
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2015
  12. Lead isotope ratio measurements as indicators for the source of lead poisoning in Mute swans (Cygnus olor) wintering in Puck Bay (northern Poland)
    Binkowski ŁJ, Meissner W, Trzeciak M, Izevbekhai K, Barker J
    Chemosphere, 2016
  13. Assessment of the LeadCare® Plus for use on Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos)
    Boesen AH, Thiel A, Fuchs B, Evans AL, Bertelsen MF, Rodushkin I, Arnemo JM
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2019
  14. First confirmed case of lead poisoning in the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Balkans
    Bounas A, Ganoti M, Giannakaki E, Akrivos A, Vavylis D, Zorrilla I, Saravia V
    Vulture News, 2018
  15. Low-level environmental metal pollution is associated with altered gut microbiota of a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus)
    Brila I, Lavrinienko A, Tukalenko E, Ecke F, Rodushkin I, Kallio ER, Mappes T, Watts PC
    Science of The Total Environment, 2021
  16. Conservation efforts risk poisoning endangered New Zealand kea
    Buenz EJ, Parry GJ
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  17. Lead poisoning due to lead-pellet ingestion in Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from the Iberian Peninsula
    Carneiro MA, Oliveira PA, Brandão R, Francisco ON, Velarde R, Lavín S, Colaço B
    Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2016
  18. Assessment of the exposure to heavy metals in Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from the Iberian Peninsula
    Carneiro M, Colaço B, Brandão R, Azorín B, Nicolas O, Colaço J, Pires MJ, Agustí S, Casas-Díaz E, Lavin S, Oliveira PA
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2015
  19. Biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb) and metalloid (As) with the Portuguese common buzzard (Buteo buteo)
    Carneiro M, Colaço B, Brandão R, Ferreira C, Santos N, Soeiro V, Colaço A, Pires MJ, Oliveira PA, Lavín S
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2014
  20. Quantitative assessment of bullet fragments in viscera of sheep carcasses as surrogates for white-tailed deer
    Cruz-Martinez L, Grund MD, Redig PT
    Human-Wildlife Interactions, 2015
  21. Terrestrial vertebrate toxicology in Australia: an overview of wildlife research
    Death CE, Griffiths SR, Story PG
    Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 2019
  22. Integrating active and passive monitoring to assess sublethal effects and mortality from lead poisoning in birds of prey
    Descalzo E, Camarero PR, Sánchez-Barbudo IS, Martinez-Haro M, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Moreno-Opo R, Mateo R
    Science of The Total Environment, 2021
  23. Widespread Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles Captured in Montana
    Domenech R, Shreading A, Ramsey P, McTee M
    The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2020
  24. Spatio-temporal variation of metals and organic contaminants in bank voles (Myodes glareolus)
    Ecke F, Benskin JP, Berglund ÅM, de Wit CA, Engström E, Plassmann MM, Rodushkin I, Sörlin D, Hörnfeldt B
    Science of The Total Environment, 2020
  25. Sublethal lead exposure alters movement behavior in free-ranging golden eagles
    Ecke F, Singh NJ, Arnemo JM, Bignert A, Helander B, Berglund ÅMM, Borg H, Bröjer C, Holm K, Lanzone M, Miller T, Nordström Å, Räikkönen J, Rodushkin I, Ågren E, Hörnfeldt B
    Environmental Science and Technology, 2017
  26. Choroidal vasculopathy and retinal detachment in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with lead toxicosis
    Eid R, Guzman DS-M, Keller KA, Wiggans KT, Murphy CJ, LaDouceur EEB, Keel MK, Reilly CM
    Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2016
  27. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)
    Espín S, Martínez-López E, Jiménez P, María-Mojica P, García-Fernández AJ
    Environmental Research, 2014
  28. Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of lead poisoning of wild raptors
    Fallon JA, Redig P, Miller TA, Lanzone M, Katzner T
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2017
  29. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina
    Ferreyra H, Beldomenico PM, Marchese K, Romano M, Caselli A, Correa AI, Uhart M
    Ecotoxicology, 2015
  30. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots
    Ferreyra H, Romano M, Beldomenico P, Caselli A, Correa A, Uhart M
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2014
  31. Lead exposure risk from trash ingestion by the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus)
    Finkelstein ME, Brandt J, Sandhaus E, Grantham J, Mee A, Schuppert PJ, Smith DR
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2015
  32. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis
    Finkelstein ME, Kuspa ZE, Welch A, Eng C, Clark M, Burnett J, Smith DR
    Environmental Research, 2014
  33. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality
    Franson JC, Russell RE
    Ecotoxicology, 2014
  34. Exposure, effects and absorption of lead in american woodcock (Scolopax minor): a review
    French AD, Conway WC, Cañas-Carrell JE, Klein DM
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2017
  35. High concentrations of lead (Pb) in blood and milk of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Scandinavia
    Fuchs B, Thiel A, Zedrosser A, Brown L, Hydeskov HB, Rodushkin I, Evans AL, Boesen AH, Græsli AR, Kindberg J, Arnemo JM
    Environmental Pollution, 2021
  36. Acute and chronic lead exposure in four avian scavenger species in Switzerland
    Ganz K, Jenni L, Madry MM, Kraemer T, Jenny H, Jenny D
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2018
  37. Association between hunting and elevated blood lead levels in the critically endangered African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus
    Garbett R, Maude G, Hancock P, Kenny D, Reading R, Amar A
    Science of The Total Environment, 2018
  38. Conservation Letter: Lead Poisoning of Raptors
    Garvin JC, Slabe VA, Cuadros Díaz SF
    Journal of Raptor Research, 2020
  39. From sport hunting to breeding success: patterns of lead ammunition ingestion and its effects on an endangered raptor
    Gil-Sánchez JM, Molleda S, Sánchez-Zapata JA, Bautista J, Navas I, Godinho R, García-Fernández AJ, Moleón M
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  40. Evaluation of factors influencing grit use by birds
    Gionfriddo JP
    Iowa State University, 1994
  41. A review and assessment of spent lead ammunition and its exposure and effects to scavenging birds in the United States
    Golden NH, Warner SE, Coffey MJ
    Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2016
  42. Levels of blood lead in griffon vultures from a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Spain
    González F, López I, Suarez L, Moraleda V, Rodríguez C
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2017
  43. Male zebra finches exposed to lead (Pb) during development have reduced volume of song nuclei, altered sexual traits, and received less attention from females as adults
    Goodchild CG, Beck ML, VanDiest I, Czesak FN, Lane SJ, Sewall KB
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2021
  44. Lead poisoning from ingestion of fishing gear: A review
    Grade T, Campbell P, Cooley T, Kneeland M, Leslie E, MacDonald B, Melotti J, Okoniewski J, Parmley EJ, Perry C, Vogel H, Pokras M
    Ambio, 2019
  45. Additional mortality rate of wildfowl caused by ingestion of lead shotgun pellets: a re-analysis of data from a 70-year-old field experiment on wild Mallards Anas platyrhynchos
    Green RE, Pain DJ
    Wildfowl Journal, 2020
  46. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle
    Haig SM, D’Elia J, Eagles-Smith C, Fair JM, Gervais J, Herring G, Rivers JW, Schulz JH
    Condor, 2014
  47. Animal welfare testing for shooting and darting free-ranging wildlife: a review and recommendations
    Hampton JO, Arnemo JM, Barnsley R, Cattet M, Daoust P-Y, DeNicola AJ, Eccles G, Fletcher D, Hinds LA, Hunt R, Portas T, Stokke S, Warburton B, Wimpenny C
    Wildlife Research, 2021
  48. Heads in the sand: public health and ecological risks of lead-based bullets for wildlife shooting in Australia
    Hampton JO, Laidlaw M, Buenz E, Arnemo JM
    Wildlife Research, 2018
  49. Portable X-ray fluorescence for bone lead measurements of Australian eagles
    Hampton JO, Specht AJ, Pay JM, Pokras MA, Bengsen AJ
    Science of The Total Environment, 2021
  50. Major lead exposure from hunting ammunition in eagles from Sweden
    Helander B, Krone O, Räikkönen J, Sundbom M, Ågren E, Bignert A
    Science of The Total Environment, 2021
  51. Temporal changes in concentrations of lead and other trace metals in free-ranging Eurasian eagle owls Bubo bubo in Sweden
    Helander B, Sundbom M, Runkel AA, Bignert A
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2019
  52. The lead (Pb) lining of agriculture‐related subsidies: enhanced golden eagle growth rates tempered by Pb exposure
    Herring G, Eagles‐Smith CA, Buck JA, Shiel AE, Vennum CR, Emery C, Johnson B, Leal D, Heath JA, Dudek BM, Preston CR
    Ecosphere, 2020
  53. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers
    Herring G, Eagles-Smith CA, Wagner MT
    PLoS ONE, 2016
  54. Assessment of LeadCare® II analysis for testing of a wide range of blood lead levels in comparison with ICP–MS analysis
    Hokuto N, Shouta MM, Nakayama JY, Muzandu K, Toyomaki H, Yohannes YB, Kataba A, Zyambo G, Ikenaka Y, Choongo K, Ishizuka M
    Chemosphere, 2021
  55. Acute lead poisoning in a Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in Israel
    Horowitz IH, Yanco E, Nadler R V., Anglister N, Landau S, Elias R, Lublin A, Perl S, Edery N, Rosenzweig AB
    Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2014
  56. Lead exposure in raptors from Japan and source identification using Pb stable isotope ratios
    Ishii C, Nakayama SMM, Ikenaka Y, Nakata H, Saito K, Watanabe Y, Mizukawa H, Tanabe S, Nomiyama K, Hayashi T, Ishizuka M
    Chemosphere, 2017
  57. Lead poisoning and other human-related factors cause significant mortality in white-tailed eagles
    Isomursu, M., Koivusaari, J., Stjernberg, T., Hirvelä-Koski, V. & Venäläinen, E. R.
    Ambio, 2018
  58. The frequency distribution of lead concentration in feathers, blood, bone, kidney and liver of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos: insights into the modes of uptake
    Jenni L, Madry MM, Kraemer T, Kupper J, Naegeli H, Jenny H, Jenny D
    Journal of Ornithology, 2015
  59. Brains of native and alien mesocarnivores in biomonitoring of toxic metals in Europe
    Kalisinska E, Lanocha-Arendarczyk N, Kosik-Bogacka D, Budis H, Podlasinska J, Popiolek M, Pirog A, Jedrzejewska E
    PLoS ONE, 2016
  60. Lead and other trace elements in Danish birds of prey
    Kanstrup N, Chriél M, Dietz R, Søndergaard J, Balsby TJS, Sonne C
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2019
  61. Origins of lead in populations of raptors
    Katzner TE, Stuber MJ, Slabe VA, Anderson JT, Cooper JL, Rhea LL, Millsap BA
    Animal Conservation, 2018
  62. Assessing Lead Exposure in Free-ranging Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA
    Kelly J, Carstensen K, Hildebrand EC, Long L
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2021
  63. Concentrations of lead and other elements in the liver of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), a European flagship species, wintering in Eastern Poland
    Kitowski I, Jakubas D, Wiącek D, Sujak A
    Ambio, 2017
  64. Trace element concentrations in livers of common buzzards Buteo buteo from eastern Poland
    Kitowski I, Jakubas D, Wiącek D, Sujak A, Pitucha G
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2017
  65. Lead toxicosis in a southern ground hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri in South Africa
    Koeppel KN, Kemp L V
    Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2015
  66. Lead (Pb) in the tissues of anatidae, ardeidae, sternidae and laridae of the northern hemisphere: a review of environmental studies
    Korbecki J, Gutowska I, Chlubek D, Baranowska-Bosiacka I
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2019
  67. Lead exposure in the critically endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) population in Southern Africa
    Krüger SC, Amar A
    Journal of Raptor Research, 2018
  68. Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea
    Lam SS, McPartland M, Noori B, Garbus SE, Lierhagen S, Lyngs P, Dietz R, Therkildsen OR, Christensen TK, Tjørnløv RS, Kanstrup N, Fox AD, Sørensen IH, Arzel C, Krøkje Å, Sonne C
    Environment International, 2020
  69. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America
    Langner HW, Domenech R, Slabe VA, Sullivan SP
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2015
  70. Breeding habitat, nest-site characteristics and productivity of the little eagle (Hieraaetus morphnoides) near Armidale, New South Wales
    Larkin C, Jenkins R, McDonald PG, Debus SJ
    Pacific Conservation Biology, 2020
  71. Metal(loid) exposure assessment and biomarker responses in captive and free-ranging European brown bear (Ursus arctos)
    Lazarus M, Orct T, Sergiel A, Vranković L, Marijić VF, Rašić D, Reljić S, Aladrović J, Zwijacz-Kozica T, Zięba F, Jurasović J
    Environmental Research, 2020
  72. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success
    Legagneux P, Suffice P, Messier JS, Lelievre F, Tremblay JA, Maisonneuve C, Saint-Louis R, Bêty J
    PLoS ONE, 2014
  73. Influence of snowfall on blood lead levels of free-flying bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Upper Mississippi River Valley
    Lindblom RA, Reichart LM, Mandernack BA, Solensky M, Schoenebeck CW, Redig PT
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2017
  74. Blood lead and zinc levels and their impact on health of free-living small carnivores in Taiwan, Republic of China
    Liu CC, Chi CH, Yen SC, Liu JN, Ju YT, Kang CL, Chang CH, Yu PH
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2020
  75. Completing a worldwide picture: preliminary evidence of lead exposure in a scavenging bird from mainland Australia
    Lohr MT, Hampton JO, Cherriman S, Busetti F, Lohr C
    Science of The Total Environment, 2019
  76. Lead concentrations in antlers of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from an agricultural area in Northern Germany over a 119-year period—a historical biomonitoring study
    Ludolphy C, Kierdorf U, Kierdorf H
    Environ Sci Pollut Res, 2021.
  77. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps
    Madry MM, Kraemer T, Kupper J, Naegeli H, Jenny H, Jenni L, Jenny D
    Environmental Research Letters, 2015
  78. Lead intoxication in free-ranging bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
    Manning LK, Wünschmann A, Armién AG, Willette M, MacAulay K, Bender JB, Buchweitz JP, Redig P
    Veterinary Pathology, 2019
  79. Causes of Mortality in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in The Canadian Maritime Provinces, 1991-2016
    Mathieu A, Parmley EJ, McBurney S, Robertson C, Van Doninck H, Daoust P-Y
    Canadian Wildlife Biology and Management, 2020
  80. Sub-lethal exposure to lead is associated with heightened aggression in an urban songbird
    McClelland SC, Ribeiro RD, Mielke HW, Finkelstein ME, Gonzales CR, Jones JA, Komdeur J, Derryberry E, Saltzberg EB, Karubian J
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  81. Lead isotopic signatures in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the central Baltic Sea
    McPartland M, Garbus S-E, Lierhagen S, Sonne C, Krøkje Å
    Environment International, 2020
  82. Free lunch, may contain lead: scavenging shot small mammals
    Mctee M, Hiller B, Ramsey P
    Journal of Wildlife Management, 2019
  83. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe
    Mateo R, Petkov N, Lopez-Antia A, Rodríguez-Estival J, Green AJ
    Environmental Research, 2016
  84. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation
    Mateo-Tomás P, Olea PP, Jimé nez-Moreno M, Camarero PR, Sánchez-Barbudo IS, Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios RC, Mateo R
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2016
  85. Relationship between blood lead levels and physiological stress in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in municipal beaches of the southern Baltic
    Meissner W, Binkowski ŁJ, Barker J, Hahn A, Trzeciak M
    Science of the Total Environment, 2020
  86. Poisoning of reintroduced red kites (Milvus milvus) in England
    Molenaar FM, Jaffe JE, Carter I, Barnett EA, Shore RF, Marcus Rowcliffe J, Sainsbury AW
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017
  87. Lead contamination in raptors in Europe: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Monclús L, Shore RF, Krone O
    Science of The Total Environment, 2020
  88. Monitoring contaminants, emerging infectious diseases and environmental change with raptors, and links to human health
    Movalli P, Krone O, Osborn D, Pain D
    Bird Study, 2018
  89. Lead exposure and food processing in white-tailed eagles and other scavengers: an experimental approach to simulate lead uptake at shot mammalian carcasses
    Nadjafzadeh M, Hofer H, Krone O
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2015
  90. Spatial, seasonal and individual variation in the diet of white-tailed eagles Haliaeetus albicilla assessed using stable isotope ratios
    Nadjafzadeh M, Voigt CC, Krone O
    Ibis, 2016
  91. Lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern Africa
    Naidoo V, Wolter K, Botha CJ
    Environmental Research, 2017
  92. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain
    Newth JL, Rees EC, Cromie RL, McDonald RA, Bearhop S, Pain DJ, Norton GJ, Deacon C, Hilton GM
    Environmental Pollution, 2016
  93. Effects of lead from ammunition on birds and other wildlife: a review and update
    Pain DJ, Mateo R, Green RE
    Ambio, 2019
  94. High Frequency of Lead Exposure in the Population of an Endangered Australian Top Predator, the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi)
    Pay JM, Katzner TE, Hawkins CE, Koch AJ, Wiersma JM, Brown WE, Mooney NJ, Cameron EZ
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2020
  95. Winter diet and lead poisoning risk of Greater Spotted Eagles Clanga clanga in southeast Spain
    Pérez-García JM, Marco-Tresserras J, Orihuela-Torres A
    Bird Study, 2020
  96. Ultrastructural study of liver and lead tissue concentrations in young mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after ingestion of single lead shot
    Pineau A, Fauconneau B, Plouzeau E, Fernandez B, Quellard N, Levillain P, Guillard O
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2017
  97. What do we know about lead contamination in wild vultures and condors? A review of decades of research
    Plaza PI, Lambertucci SA
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  98. Comparison of lead contamination among related scavenging birds sharing food sources: a call for caution when using surrogate species
    Plaza PI, Wiemeyer G, Lambertucci SA
    Ibis, 2020
  99. Lack of observed movement response to lead exposure of California condors
    Poessel SA, Brandt J, Uyeda L, Astell M, Katzner TE
    The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2018
  100. Implications of mercury and lead concentrations on breeding physiology and phenology in an Arctic bird
    Provencher JF, Forbes MR, Hennin HL, Love OP, Braune BM, Mallory ML, Gilchrist HG
    Environmental Pollution, 2016
  101. Chronic lead intoxication decreases intestinal helminth species richness and infection intensity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)
    Prüter H, Franz M, Auls S, Czirják GÁ, Greben O, Greenwood AD, Lisitsyna O, Syrota Y, Sitko J, Krone O
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  102. Toxicity assessment on the levels of select metals in the critically endangered Indian white-backed vulture, Gyps bengalensis, in India
    Rajamani J, Subramanian M
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2015
  103. Lead in terrestrial game birds from Spain
    Romero D, de José A, Theureau JM, Ferrer A, Raigón MD, Torregrosa JB
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2020
  104. Spent lead shot availability and ingestion by ring-necked pheasants in South Dakota
    Runia TJ, Solem AJ
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2016
  105. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013
    Russell RE, Franson JC
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2014
  106. Consequences of trace metal cocktail exposure in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and effect of calcium supplementation
    Saulnier A, Bleu J, Boos A, El Masoudi I, Ronot P, Zahn S, Del Nero M, Massemin S
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2020
  107. Sources of mortality in bald eagles in Michigan, 1986–2017
    Simon KL, Best DA, Sikarskie JG, Pittman HT, Bowerman WW, Cooley TM, Stolz S
    The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2020
  108. Consequences of migratory coupling of predators and prey when mediated by human actions
    Singh NJ, Ecke F, Katzner T, Bagchi S, Sandström P, Hörnfeldt B
    Diversity and Distributions, 2021
  109. Lead in piscivorous raptors during breeding season in the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland and Virginia, USA
    Slabe VA, Anderson JT, Cooper J, Brown B, Ortiz P, Buchweitz J, McRuer D, Katzner T
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2019
  110. Lead exposure biomarkers in the common loon
    Specht AJ, Kirchner KE, Weisskopf MG, Pokras MA
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  111. Response to letter to the editor “Conservation efforts risk poisoning endangered New Zealand kea”
    Sriram A, Roe W, Booth M, Gartrell B
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  112. Studies of lead residues in bones and feathers of griffon vultures
    Stamberov P, Mehmedov T
    Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, 2020
  113. Mallards Anas platyrhynchos shot in Eastern Poland: ecological risk evaluated by analysis of trace elements in liver
    Sujak A, Wiącek D, Jakubas D, Komosa A, Kitowski I
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 2019
  114. Concentration and origin of lead (Pb) in liver and bone of Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) in the United Kingdom
    Taggart MA, Shore RF, Pain DJ, Peniche G, Martinez-Haro M, Mateo R, Homann J, Raab A, Feldmann J, Lawlor AJ, Potter ED, Walker LA, Braidwood DW, French AS, Parry-Jones J, Swift JA, Green RE
    Environmental Pollution, 2020
  115. Lead exposure in consumers of culled invasive alien mammals in El Palmar National Park, Argentina
    Tammone A, Caselli AE, Condorí WE, Fernandez V, Estein SM, Vanstreels RET, Sosa C, Delaloye A, Uhart MM
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021
  116. Evidence of high tolerance to ecologically relevant lead shot pellet exposures by an upland bird
    Tannenbaum L
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2014
  117. Analysis of lead distribution in avian organs by LA-ICP-MS: Study of experimentally lead-exposed ducks and kites
    Torimoto R, Ishii C, Sato H, Saito K, Watanabe Y, Ogasawara K, Kubota A, Matsukawa T, Yokoyama K, Kobayashi A, Kimura T, Nakayama SMM, Ikenaka Y, Ishizuka M
    Environmental Pollution, 2021
  118. Relationship between blood test values and blood lead (Pb) levels in Black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus: Laridae)
    Ushine N, Nakayama S, Ishizuka M, Sato T, Kurahashi Y, Wakayama E, Sugiura N, Hayama SI
    The Journal of veterinary medical science, 2020
  119. Altered immune response in mallard ducklings exposed to lead through maternal transfer in the wild
    Vallverdú-Coll N, López-Antia A, Martinez-Haro M, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Mateo R
    Environmental Pollution, 2015
  120. Immunotoxic effects of lead on birds
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Mateo R, Mougeot F, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  121. Effects of lead exposure on sperm quality and reproductive success in an avian model
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Mougeot F, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Castaño C, Santiago-Moreno J, Mateo R
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2016
  122. Lead exposure reduces carotenoid-based coloration and constitutive immunity in wild mallards
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Mougeot F, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Rodriguez-Estival J, López-Antia A, Mateo R
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2016
  123. Sublethal Pb exposure produces season-dependent effects on immune response, oxidative balance and investment in carotenoid-based coloration in red-legged partridges
    Vallverdú-Coll N, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME, Mougeot F, Vidal D, Mateo R
    Environmental Science and Technology, 2015
  124. Blood and bone lead levels in South Africa’s Gyps vultures: Risk to nest-bound chicks and comparison with other avian taxa
    van den Heever L, Smit-Robinson H, Naidoo V, McKechnie AE
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  125. Eagle visitation rates to carrion in a winter scavenging guild
    Watson JW, Vekasy MS, Nelson JD, Orr MR
    The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2019
  126. Bald eagle lead exposure in the Upper Midwest
    Warner SE, Britton EE, Becker DN, Coffey MJ
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2014
  127. Feasibility of California condor recovery in northern California, USA: contaminants in surrogate turkey vultures and common ravens
    West CJ, Wolfe JD, Wiegardt A, Williams-Claussen T
    The Condor, 2017
  128. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: high levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean condor widen the problem to a continental scale
    Wiemeyer GM, Pérez MA, Torres Bianchini L, Sampietro L, Bravo GF, Jácome NL, Astore V, Lambertucci SA
    Environmental Pollution, 2017
  129. Heavy metal accumulation as a threat to the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus L.) in Turkey
    Yamac E, Özden M, Balaban S, Malkoc S
    Turkish Journal of Zoology, 2019
  130. Lead poisoning in bald eagles admitted to wildlife rehabilitation facilities in Iowa, 2004-2014
    Yaw T, Neumann K, Bernard L, Cancilla J, Evans T, Martin-Schwarze A, Zaffarano B
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2017
  1. Effects of lead exposure, environmental conditions, and metapopulation processes on population dynamics of spectacled eiders
    Flint PL, Grand JB, Petersen MR, Rockwell RF
    North American Fauna, 2016
  2. Population-level effects of lead fishing tackle on common loons
    Grade TJ, Pokras MA, Laflamme EM, Vogel HS
    The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2018
  3. Possible effects of ingested lead gunshot on populations of ducks wintering in the UK
    Green RE, Pain DJ
    Ibis, 2016
  4. Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for lead exposure in endangered California condors during 15 years of reintroduction
    Kelly TR, Grantham J, George D, Welch A, Brandt J, Burnett LJ, Sorenson KJ, Johnson M, Poppenga R, Moen D, Rasico J, Rivers JW, Battistone C & Johnson CK
    Conservation Biology, 2014
  5. Can ingestion of lead shot and poisons change population trends of three European birds: grey partridge, common buzzard, and red kite?
    Meyer CB, Meyer JS, Francisco AB, Holder J, Verdonck F
    PLoS ONE, 2016
  1. Hunting, sale, and consumption of bushmeat killed by lead-based ammunition in Benin
    Ahmadi S, Maman S, Zoumenou R, Massougbodji A, Cot M, Glorennec P, Bodeau-Livinec F
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018
  2. Lead ammunition residues in the meat of hunted woodcock: a potential health risk to consumers
    Andreotti A, Borghesi F, Aradis A
    Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2016
  3. Blood lead surveillance and exposure sources among Alaska children
    Bressler JM, Yoder S, Cooper S, McLaughlin J
    Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2019
  4. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape
    Boutwell BB, Nelson EJ, Qian Z, Vaughn MG, Wright JP, Beaver KM, Barnes JC, Petkovsek M, Lewis R, Schootman M, Rosenfeld R
    PLoS One, 2017
  5. Eliminating potential lead exposure in imported New Zealand wild game
    Buenz EJ
    Public Health, 2016
  6. Lead exposure through eating wild game
    Buenz EJ
    The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
  7. Chronic lead intoxication from eating wild-harvested game
    Buenz EJ, Parry GJ
    American Journal of Medicine, 2017
  8. Retained lumbar bullet: a case report of chronic lead toxicity and review of the literature
    Bustamante ND, Macias-Konstantopoulos WL
    Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2016
  9. Trace Elements in Home-Processed Food Obtained from Unconventional Animals
    Carpenè E, Andreani G, Ferlizza E, Menotta S, Fedrizzi G, Isani G
    Life (Basel), 2020
  10. Association between early lead exposure and externalizing behaviors in adolescence: a developmental cascade
    Desrochers-Couture M, Courtemanche Y, Forget-Dubois N, Bélanger RE, Boucher O, Ayotte P, Cordier S, Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Muckle G
    Environmental Research, 2019
  11. Blood lead concentrations as a result of retained lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria
    Edetanlen BE, Saheeb BD
    British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2016
  12. Elemental composition of food on the Austrian market
    Erti K
    Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, 2018
  13. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria
    Ertl K, Kitzer R, Goessler W
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 2016
  14. Blood lead levels in us women of childbearing age, 1976–2016
    Ettinger AS, Egan KB, Homa DM, Brown MJ
    Environmental Health Perspectives, 2020
  15. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception
    Fachehoun RC, Lévesque B, Dumas P, St-Louis A, Dubé M, Ayotte P
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2015
  16. Lead in game bird meat as a risk to public health: new aspects in the light of physical phenomena generated by a projectile
    Felsmann MZ, Szarek J, Felsmann M, Gulda D
    Journal of Elementology, 2016
  17. Wild game consumption habits among Italian shooters: relevance for intakes of cadmium, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid, and 137cesium as priority contaminants
    Ferri M, Baldi L, Cavallo S, Pellicanò R, Brambilla G
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2017
  18. Identification of environmental sources of lead exposure in Nunavut (Canada) using stable isotope analyses
    Fillion M, Blais JM, Yumvihoze E, Nakajima M, Workman P, Osborne G, Chan HM
    Environment International, 2014
  19. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy
    Fustinoni S, Sucato S, Consonni D, Mannucci PM, Moretto A
    Environmental Research, 2017
  20. Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Trace Metals Via Bushmeat in Ghana
    Gbogbo F, Rainhill JE, Koranteng SS, Owusu EH, Dorleku W-P
    Biological Trace Element Research, 2020
  21. Risks to human health from ammunition-derived lead in Europe
    Green RE, Pain DJ
    Ambio, 2019
  22. Heads in the sand: public health and ecological risks of lead-based bullets for wildlife shooting in Australia
    Hampton JO, Laidlaw M, Buenz E, Arnemo JM
    Wildlife Research, 2018
  23. Blood lead levels in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review
    Howard H, Nash E, Ferraro G, Sinitsky J, Taylor MP
    The Lancet, Planetary Health, 2021
  24. Risk assessment of dietary lead exposure among First Nations people living on-reserve in Ontario, Canada using a total diet study and a probabilistic approach
    Juric AK, Batal M, David W, Sharp D, Schwartz H, Ing A, Fediuk K, Black A, Tikhonov C, Chan HM, Chan L
    Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2018
  25. Congenital lead poisoning in three siblings from a mother with retained bullet fragments
    Karpen SR, Hurst NB, Plitt J, Chase P, Shirazi FM
    Clinical Toxicology, 2015
  26. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets
    Kollander B, Widemo F, Ågren E, Larsen EH, Loeschner K
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2017
  27. Risk assessment of lead exposure from cervid meat in Norwegian consumers and in hunting dogs
    Knutsen HK, Brantsæter AL, Fæste CK, Ruus A, Thomsen C, Skåre JU, Amlund H, Arukwe A, Eriksen GS
    European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 2019
  28. Lead exposure at firing ranges – a review
    Laidlaw MAS, Filippelli G, Mielke H, Gulson B, Ball AS
    Environmental Health, 2017
  29. Lead and the heart: an ancient metal’s contribution to modern disease
    Landrigan PJ
    The Lancet: Public Health, 2018
  30. Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study
    Lanphear BP, Rauch S, Auinger P, Allen RW, Hornung RW
    The Lancet: Public Health, 2018
  31. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among Croatian consumers of free-living game
    Lazarus M, Prevendar Crnić A, Bilandžić N, Kusak J, Reljić S
    Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 2014
  32. Toxic heavy metals in the muscle of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) – food toxicological significance
    Lehel J, Laczay P, Gyurcsó A, Jánoska F, Majoros S, Lányi K, Marosán M
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2016
  33. Lead Levels in Wild Boar Meat Sauce (Ragù) Sold on the Italian Market
    Lenti A, Menozzi A, Fedrizzi G, Menotta S, Iemmi T, Galletti G, Serventi P, Bertini S
    International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 2021
  34. Source identification of human exposure to lead in nine Cree Nations from Quebec, Canada (Eeyou Istchee territory)
    Liberda EN, Tsuji LJ, Martin ID, Ayotte P, Robinson E, Dewailly E, Nieboer E
    Environmental Research, 2018
  35. Association of lead-exposure risk and family income with childhood brain outcomes
    Marshall AT, Betts S, Kan EC, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, Sowell ER
    Nature Medicine, 2020
  36. Comparison of lead levels in edible parts of red deer hunted with lead or non-lead ammunition
    Martin A, Müller-Graf C, Selhorst T, Gerofke A, Ulbig E, Gremse C, Greiner M, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M, Hensel A
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  37. The role of the South African Medical Research Council in reducing lead exposure and preventing lead poisoning in South Africa
    Mathee A, Naicker N, von Schirnding Y
    South African Medical Journal, 2019
  38. Lead exposure through consumption of small game harvested using lead-based ammunition and the corresponding health risks to first nations in Alberta, Canada
    McAuley C, Ng C, McFarland C, Dersch A, Koppe B, Sowan D
    Cogent Environmental Science, 2018
  39. Systemic lead poisoning in an infant after gunshot injury to the spine and brain
    Montague A, Orozco B
    Clinical Toxicology, 2017
  40. Is there a relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in shooters?
    Naicker N, de Jager P, Naidoo S, Mathee A
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018
  41. Occupational lead exposure from indoor firing ranges in Korea
    Park WJ, Lee SH, Lee SH, Yoon HS, Moon JD
    Journal of Korean Medical Science, 2016
  42. Association of childhood blood lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood
    Reuben A, Caspi A, Belsky DW, Broadbent J, Harrington H, Sugden K, Houts RM, Ramrakha S, Poulton R, Moffitt TE
    JAMA, 2017
  43. Including eating lead-shot meat in the differential diagnosis of non-specific symptoms
    Parry G, Buenz EJ
    Internal Medicine Journal, 2020.
  44. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers
    Rocha ED, Sarkis JES, Carvalho MDH, dos Santos GV, Canesso C
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2014
  45. Essential and toxic elements in meat of wild birds
    Roselli C, Desideri D, Meli MA, Fagiolino I, Feduzi L
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2016
  46. Lead pellet ingestion in 3 children: another source for lead toxicity
    Rozier B, Liebelt E
    Pediatric Emergency Care, 2019
  47. Marination increases the bioavailability of lead in game meat shot with lead ammunition
    Schulz K, Brenneis F, Winterhalter R, Spolders M, Fromme H, Dietrich S, Wolf P, Gremse C, Schafft H, Pieper R, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M
    Journal of Nutritional Science, 2021
  48. Long-term simulation of lead concentrations in agricultural soils in relation to human adverse health effects
    Schupp T, Damm G, Foth H, Freyberger A, Gebel T, Gundert-Remy U, Hengstler JG, Mangerich A, Partosch F, Röhl C, Wollin KM
    Archives of Toxicology, 2020
  49. Proximal muscle weakness in severe lead poisoning from retained bullet fragments
    Srisuma S, Lavonas EJ, Wananukul W
    Clinical Toxicology, 2015
  50. Lead concentration in game migratory upland bird meat: Influence of ammunition impacts and health risk assessment
    Sevillano-Caño J, Cámara-Martos F, Zamora-Díaz R, Sevillano–Morales JS
    Food Control, 2021
  51. Risk Assessment of Cd, Cu, and Pb from the consumption of hunted meat: red-legged partridge and wild rabbit
    Sevillano-Morales JS, Sevillano-Caño J, Cámara-Martos F, Moreno-Ortega A, Amaro-López MA, Arenas-Casas A, Moreno-Rojas A
    Biological Trace Element Research, 2021
  52. Feasibility of Lead Exposure Assessment in Blood Spots using Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence
    Specht AJ, Obryck JF, Mazumdar M, Weisskopf MG
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2021
  53. Metal deposition of copper and lead bullets in moose harvested in Fennoscandia
    Stokke S, Brainerd S, Arnemo JM
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2017
  54. Lead Contamination Differences in the Muscle of Wild Turkeys Harvested with Lead and Copper-Plated Lead Shot
    Tisdale CA, Martin JA, Beasley JC
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2021
  55. Lead in minced beef from Norwegian hunted game, Elk (Alces alces)
    Vogt G, Tysnes EA
    Eurofins, 2015
  56. Elevated blood lead levels associated with retained bullet fragments – United States, 2003-2012
    Weiss D, Tomasallo CD, Meiman JG, Alarcon W, Graber NM, Bisgard KM, Anderson HA
    MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2017
  57. Lead Contamination in Ground Venison from Shotgun-Harvested White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois
    Wilson WA, Harper RG, Alexander G, Perara M, Fraker M
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2021
  1. Lead toxicity cases highlight a need to check pastures for possible sources of poisoning
    APHA Surveillance Report
    Vet Record, 2020
  2. Disease surveillance in England and Wales
    APHA Surveillance Report
    Veterinary Record, 2016
  3. Lead exposure in dogs fed game meat and offal from culled invasive species in El Palmar National Park, Argentina
    Fernández V, Caselli A, Tammone A, Condorí WE, Vanstreels RET, Delaloye A, Sosa C, Uhart MM
    Environmental Science Pollution Research, 2021
  4. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game
    Høgåsen HR, Ørnsrud R, Knutsen HK, Bernhoft A
    BMC Veterinary Research, 2016
  5. High blood lead concentrations in captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii): a threat to the conservation of the species?
    Hivert LG, Clarke JR, Peck SJ, Lawrence C, Brown WE, Huxtable SJ, Schaap D, Pemberton D, Grueber CE
    Australian Veterinary Journal, 2018
  6. Risk assessment of lead exposure from cervid meat in Norwegian consumers and in hunting dogs
    Knutsen HK, Brantsæter AL, Fæste CK, Ruus A, Thomsen C, Skåre JU, Amlund H, Arukwe A, Eriksen GS
    European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 2019
  7. Comparing erosion and organ accumulation rates of lead and alternative lead-free ammunition fed to captive domestic ducks
    Krone O, Kenntner N, Ebner N, Szentiks CA, Dänicke S
    Ambio, 2019
  8. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013
    North MA, Lane EP, Marnewick K, Caldwell P, Carlisle G, Hoffman LC
    Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 2015
  9. Lead intoxication incidents associated with shot from clay pigeon shooting
    Payne JH, Holmes JP, Hogg RA, van der Burgt GM, Jewell NJ, Welchman D de B
    The Veterinary Record, 2013
  10. Ingestion of a single 2.3 mm lead pellet by laying roller pigeon hens reduces egg size and adversely affects F1 generation hatchlings
    Williams RJ, Tannenbaum LV, Williams SM, Holladay SD, Tuckfield RC, Sharma A, Humphrey DJ, Gogal RM
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2017
  1. The influence of environmental conditions on lead transfer from spent gunshot to sediments and water: other routes for Pb poisoning
    Binkowski ŁJ
    Chemosphere, 2017
  2. Leaching behavior and ecotoxicological effects of different game shot materials in freshwater
    Fäth J, Feiner M, Beggel S, Geist J, Göttlein A
    Knowledge & Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 2018
  3. Systematic review and meta-analyses of lead (Pb) concentrations in environmental media (soil, dust, water, food, and air) reported in the United States from 1996 to 2016
    Frank JJ, Poulakos AG, Tornero-Velez R, Xue J
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  4. Lead seasonality in humans, animals, and the natural environment
    Levin R, Vieira CL, Mordarski DC, Rosenbaum MH
    Environmental Research, 2019
  5. Density of lead and nontoxic shotshell pellets in Gulf Coast prairie ricelands
    Marty JR, Davis JB, Brasher MG, Kaminski RM, Brinkman EL
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2017
  6. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina
    Romano M, Ferreyra H, Ferreyroa G, Molina FV, Caselli A, Barberis I, Beldoménico P, Uhart M
    Science of the Total Environment, 2016
  7. The role of macroinvertebrates in the distribution of lead (Pb) within an urban marsh ecosystem
    Ryan SC, Belby CS, King-Heiden TC, Haro RJ, Ogorek J, Gerrish GA
    Hydrobiologia, 2019

Ecological Impacts, Contamination, and Mitigation in Firing Ranges

  1. Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range
    Mariussen E, Heier LS, Teien HC, Pettersen MN, Holth TF, Salbu B, Rosseland BO
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2017
  2. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires
    Mariussen E, Johnsen IV, Strømseng AE
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017
  3. Application of sorbents in different soil types from small arms shooting ranges for immobilization of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb)
    Mariussen E, Johnsen IV, Strømseng AE
    Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2018
  4. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide
    Mariussen E, Johnsen IV, Strømseng AE
    Journal of Environmental Management, 2015
  5. Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study
    Okkenhaug G, Grasshorn Gebhardt KA, Amstaetter K, Lassen Bue H, Herzel H, Mariussen E, Rossebø Almås Å, Cornelissen G, Breedveld GD, Rasmussen G, Mulder J
    Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2016
  6. Shooting range contamination: mobility and transport of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) in contaminated peatland
    Okkenhaug G, Smebye AB, Pabst T, Amundsen CE, Sævarsson H, Breedveld GD
    Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2018
  7. Lead and PAHs contamination of an old shooting range: a case study with a holistic approach
    Rodríguez-Seijo A, Cachada A, Gavina A, Duarte AC, Vega FA, Andrade ML, Pereira R
    Science of the Total Environment, 2017
  8. Pollution and risk assessment of potential hazardous elements in a shooting range soils (NW Spain)
    Rodríguez-Seijo A, Lago-Vila M, Arenas-Lago D, Andrade ML, Vega FA
    Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 2016
  9. Copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc levels and pollution degree in firing range soils
    Rodríguez-Seijo A, Alfaya MC, Andrade ML, Vega FA
    Land Degradation and Development, 2016
  10. Lead pollution of shooting range soils
    Sehube N, Kelebemang R, Totolo O, Laetsang M, Kamwi O, Dinake P
    South African Journal of Chemistry, 2017
  11. Assessing lead, nickel, and zinc pollution in topsoil from a historic shooting range rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park
    Urrutia-Goyes R, Argyraki A, Ornelas-Soto N
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2017

Shot

  1. Switch to non-toxic shot in the Camargue, France: effect on waterbird contamination and hunter effectiveness
    Mondain-Monval JY, Defos du Rau P, Guillemain M, Olivier A
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2015
  2. A comparison of lead and steel shot loads for harvesting mourning doves
    Pierce BL, Roster TA, Frisbie MC, Mason CD, Roberson JA
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2015
  3. The transition to non-lead sporting ammunition and fishing weights: Review of progress and barriers to implementation
    Thomas V, Kanstrup N, Fox AD
    Ambio, 2019
  4. Lead pollution from hunting ammunition in Argentina and current state of lead shot replacement efforts
    Uhart M, del Valle Ferreyra H, Romano M, Muchiutti A, Alzuagaray S, Santiago M, Caselli A
    Ambio, 2019

Bullets

  1. Reducing impacts from ammunitions: a comparative life-cycle assessment of four types of 9 mm ammunitions
    Ferreira C, Ribeiro J, Almada S, Rotariu T, Freire F
    Science of the Total Environment, 2016
  2. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap
    Gremse F, Krone O, Thamm M, Kiessling F, Tolba RH, Rieger S, Gremse C
    PLoS ONE, 2014
  3. Assessment of Lead-Free .22 LR Bullets for Shooting European Rabbits
    Hampton JO, DeNicola AJ, Forsyth DM
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2020
  4. Efficacy of non-lead rifle ammunition for hunting in Denmark
    Kanstrup N, Balsby TJS, Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  5. Non-lead rifle ammunition: Danish hunters’ attitudes
    Kanstrup N, Balsby TJS, Mellerup KA, Hansen HP
    Environmental Sciences Europe, 2021
  6. Bly i riffelammunition – danske jægeres kendskab og holdning
    Kanstrup N, Hansen HP, Balsby TJS and Mellerup KA
    Aarhus Universitet, DCE – Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi, 2020
  7. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?
    Martin A, Gremse C, Selhorst T, Bandick N, Müller-Graf C, Greiner M, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M
    PLoS ONE, 2017
  8. Comparison of lead levels in edible parts of red deer hunted with lead or non-lead ammunition
    Martin A, Müller-Graf C, Selhorst T, Gerofke A, Ulbig E, Gremse C, Greiner M, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M, Hensel A
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  9. Efficacy of non-lead ammunition for culling elk at Theodore Roosevelt National Park
    McCann BE, Whitworth W, Newman RA
    Human-Wildlife Interactions, 2016
  10. Better bullets to shoot small mammals without poisoning scavengers
    McTee M, Young M, Umansky A, Ramsey P
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2017
  11. Lead and copper in hunted wild boars and radiographic evaluation of bullet fragmentation between ammunitions
    Menozzi A, Menotta S, Fedrizzi G, Lenti A, Cantoni AM, Di Lecce R, Gnudi G, Pérez-López M, Bertini S
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 2019
  12. Nickel and copper residues in meat from wild artiodactyls hunted with nickel-plated non-lead rifle bullets
    Paulsen P, Sager M
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017
  13. Estimating lead fragmentation from ammunition for muzzleloading and black powder cartridge rifles
    Sanchez DM, Epps CW, Taylor DS
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2016
  14. The transition to non-lead sporting ammunition and fishing weights: Review of progress and barriers to implementation
    Thomas V, Kanstrup N, Fox AD
    Ambio, 2019

Toxicity from Lead and Non-lead Alternatives

  1. Comparing acute toxicity of gunshot particles, from firing conventional and lead-free ammunition, in pulmonary epithelial cell cultures
    Bergström U, Ekstrand-Hammarström B, Hägglund L, Wingfors H
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2015
  2. Leaching behavior and ecotoxicological effects of different game shot materials in freshwater
    Fäth J, Feiner M, Beggel S, Geist J, Göttlein A
    Knowledge & Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 2018
  3. Characterization of exposure to byproducts from firing lead-free frangible ammunition in an enclosed, ventilated firing range
    Grabinski CM, Methner MM, Jackson JM, Moore AL, Flory LE, Tilly T, Hussain SM, Ott DK
    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2017
  4. Comparing erosion and organ accumulation rates of lead and alternative lead-free ammunition fed to captive domestic ducks
    Krone O, Kenntner N, Ebner N, Szentiks CA, Dänicke S
    Ambio, 2019
  5. Evaluation of exposure to airborne heavy metals at gun shooting ranges
    Lach K, Steer B, Gorbunov B, Mička V, Muir R
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2015
  6. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition – implications for consumer health protection
    Schlichting D, Sommerfeld C, Müller-Graf C, Selhorst T, Greiner M, Gerofke A, Ulbig E, Gremse C, Spolders M, Schafft H, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M
    PLoS ONE, 2017
  7. Elemental tungsten, tungsten–nickel alloys and shotgun ammunition: resolving issues of their relative toxicity
    Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  8. Health effects after firing small arms comparing leaded and unleaded ammunition
    Voie Ø, Borander AK, Sikkeland LIB, Grahnstedt S, Johnsen A, Danielsen TE, Longva K, Kongerud J
    Inhalation Toxicology, 2014
  1. Economic assessment of wild bird mortality induced by the use of lead gunshot in European wetlands
    Andreotti A, Guberti V, Nardelli R, Pirrello S, Serra L, Volponi S, Green RE
    Science of the Total Environment, 2018
  2. Health and environmental risks from lead-based ammunition: science versus socio-politics
    Arnemo JM, Andersen O, Stokke S, Thomas VG, Krone O, Pain DJ, Mateo R
    EcoHealth, 2016
  3. Transition to lead-free ammunition benefits all
    Arnemo JM, Cromie R, Fox AD, Kanstrup N, Mateo R, Pain DJ, Thomas VG
    Ambio 2019
  4. Much ado about nothing: a conceptual discussion on novel or niche tourism in protected areas
    Blackmore A
    Parks Journal, 2020
  5. Non-lead ammunition may reduce lead levels in wild game
    Buenz EJ
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016
  6. Assessing the Impacts to Society Associated with the Use of Alternative Ammunition for Hunting on National Wildlife Refuges
    Cahill, C
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2021
  7. Unlead-Ed A journey to lead-free hunting at Paul Smit’s college
    Canover RR
    The Wildlife Professional, 2020
  8. Transitioning to non-toxic ammunition: making change happen
    Cromie R, Newth J, Strong E
    Ambio, 2019
  9. A Profile of Waterfowl Hunting and Hunters in the UK, Human Dimensions of Wildlife
    Ellis M
    Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 2014
  10. Considering the switch: challenges of transitioning to non-lead hunting ammunition
    Epps CW
    The Condor, 2014
  11. Ethical and legal bird hunting duties by Polish veterinarians
    Felsmann MZ, Szarek J, Sołtyszewski I, Karaźniewicz J
    Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 2020
  12. Lessons learned from 33 years of lead shot regulation in Denmark
    Kanstrup N
    Ambio, 2019
  13. Transitioning to lead-free ammunition use in hunting: socio-economic and regulatory considerations for the European Union and other jurisdictions
    Kanstrup N, Thomas VG
    Environmental Sciences Europe, 2020
  14. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations
    Kanstrup N, Thomas VG, Krone O, Gremse C
    Ambio, 2016
  15. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation
    Mateo R, Vallverdú-Coll N, López-Antia A, Taggart MA, Martínez-Haro M, Guitart R, Ortiz-Santaliestra ME
    Environment International, 2014
  16. Problems created by the continuing use of lead ammunition in game hunting
    Newton, I
    British Birds, 2016
  17. Perspectives of ammunition users on the use of lead ammunition and its potential impacts on wildlife and humans
    Newth JL, Lawrence A, Cromie RL, Swift JA, Rees EC, Wood KA, Strong EA, Reeves J, McDonald RA
    People and Nature, 2019
  18. Interdiction du plomb de chasse, une difficile mise en œuvre
    Olivier A, Mondain-Monval J-Y, Cardoso O
    Camargue, France, 2020
  19. Wildlife, human and environmental costs of using lead ammunition: an economic review and analysis
    Pain DJ, Dickie I, Green RE, Kanstrup N, Cromie R
    Ambio, 2019
  20. The tide is turning for lead ammunition
    Pain D, Swift J, Green R, Cromie R
    British Birds, 2020
  21. Further news on lead ammunition
    Pain D, Swift J, Green R, Cromie R
    British Birds, 2020
  22. Perspectives from natural resource professionals: Attitudes on lead ammunition risks and use of nonlead ammunition
    Schulz JH, Wilhelm Stanis SA, Morgan M, Jie Li C, Hall DM, Webb EB
    Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 2021
  23. Communication strategies for reducing lead poisoning in wildlife and human health risks
    Schulz JH, Wilhelm Stanis SA, Webb EB, Li CJ, Hall DM
    Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2019
  24. Hunting, Sale, and Consumption of Bushmeat Killed by Lead-Based Ammunition in Benin
    Shukrullah A, Maman S, Zoumenou R , Massougbodji A, Cot M, Glorennec P, Bodeau-Livinec F
    International Journal of environmental research and public health, 2018
  25. The lead fix: a brief global overview
    Swift JA
    Presentation to The Conservation Symposium, Lions River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 4-8 November 2019
  26. Rationale for the regulated transition to non-lead products in Canada: a policy discussion paper
    Thomas VG
    Science of the Total Environment, 2019
  27. Design of non-lead rifle bullets to allow instant identification
    Thomas VG
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  28. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe
    Thomas VG, Gremse C, Kanstrup N
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
  29. Exposure to lead through ammunition: need to revise policies
    Thomas VG, Guitart R
    Environmental Policy & Law, 2016
  30. Setting maximum levels for lead in game meat in EC regulations: An adjunct to replacement of lead ammunition
    Thomas VG, Pain DJ, Kanstrup N, Green RE
    Ambio, 2020
  31. Lead in hunted meat: Who’s telling hunters and their families?
    Totoni S, Fabisiak J, Terry MAA
    Environmental Health News, 2020
  32. An evaluation of the proposal to regulate lead in hunting ammunition through the European Union’s REACH regulation
    Treu G, Drost W, Stock F
    Environmental Sciences Europe, 2020
  1. Reducing lead on the landscape: anticipating hunter behavior in absence of a free nonlead ammunition program
    Chase L, Rabe MJ
    PLoS ONE, 2015
  2. Effect of a joint policy statement by nine UK shooting and rural organisations on the use of lead shotgun ammunition for hunting common pheasants Phasianus colchicus in Britain
    Green RE, Taggart MA, Pain DJ, Clark NA, Clewley L, Cromie R, Elliot B, Green RMW, Huntley B, Huntley J, Leslie R, Porter R, Robinson JA, Smith KW, Smith L, Spencer J, Stroud D
    Conservation Evidence, 2021
  3. Shot ingestion by wintering female northern pintails (Anas acuta) in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2012–14
    Huck NR, Ballard BM, Fedynich AM, Kraai KJ, Castro ME
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2016
  4. Lessons learned from 33 years of lead shot regulation in Denmark
    Kanstrup N
    Ambio, 2019
  5. Ingested shot in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after the regulation of lead shot for hunting in Denmark
    Kanstrup N, Balsby TJS
    European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2019
  6. Lead and other trace elements in Danish birds of prey
    Kanstrup N, Chriél M, Dietz R, Søndergaard J, Balsby TJS, Sonne C
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2019
  7. Toxic lead gunshot persists accessible to waterbirds after a 33-year ban on their use
    Kanstrup N, Fox AD, Balsby TJS
    Science of The Total Environment, 2020
  8. Two decades of cumulative impacts to survivorship of endangered California condors in California
    Kelly TR, Rideout BA, Grantham J, Brandt J, Burnett LJ, Sorenson KJ, George D, Welch A, Moen D, Rasico J, Johnson M, Battistone C, Johnson CK
    Biological Conservation, 2015
  9. Blood lead declines in wintering American black ducks in New Jersey following the lead shot ban
    Lewis NL, Nichols TC, Lilley C, Roscoe DE, Lovy J
    Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2021
  10. Evidence of widespread illegal hunting of waterfowl in England despite partial regulation of the use of lead shotgun ammunition
    Stroud DA, Pain DJ, Green RE
    Conservation Evidence Journal, 2021
  11. Factors affecting staff support of a voluntary nonlead ammunition outreach program
    Schulz JH, Wilhelm Stanis SA, Jie Li C, Morgan M, Webb EB
    Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 2021
  12. Lead exposure in common shelduck (Tadorna tadorna): tracking the success of the Pb shot ban for hunting in Spanish wetlands
    Valverde I, Espín S, Navas I, María-Mojica P, Gil JM, García-Fernández AJ
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2019
  13. Shooting habits and habitats- effects of education and legislation on the phasing out of lead shot
    Widemo F
    Environmental Science & Policy, 2021

2013

  1. Correction: Monitoring of Pb Exposure in Waterfowl Ten Years after a Mine Spill through the Use of Noninvasive Sampling
    Martinez-Haro M, Taggart MA, Lefranc H, Martín-Doimeadiós RC, Green AJ, Mateo R
    PLOS ONE, 2013

2012

  1. Common Loon (Gavia immer) mortality from lead weight ingestion in coastal Texas
    Stoddart E, Brooks DM
    Bulletin of the Texas ornithological society, 2012
  2. Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation
    Lindboe M, Henrichsen EN, Høgåsen HR, Bernhoft A
    Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2012

2011

  1. Identifying sources of Pb exposure in waterbirds and effects on porphyrin metabolism using noninvasive fecal sampling
    Martinez-Haro M, Taggart MA, Martín-Doimeadiøs RR, Green AJ, Mateo R
    Environ Sci Technol., 2011

2009

  1. Lead toxicity to wildlife: Derivation of a critical blood concentration for wildlife monitoring based on literature data
    Buekers J, Redeker ES, Smolders E
    Science of The Total Environment, 2009

2006

  1. Altered porphyrin excretion and histopathology of greylag geese (Anser anser) exposed to soil contaminated with lead and arsenic in the guadalquivir marshes, southwestern Spain
    Mateo R, Taggart MA, Green AJ, Cristòfol C, Ramis A, Lefranc H, Figuerola J, Meharg A
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2006

2003

  1. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl
    Sileo L, Beyer WN, Mateo R
    Avian Pathology, 2003

1983

  1. The incidence and significance of ingested lead pellet poisoning in British wildfowl
    Mudge GP
    Biological Conservation, 1983

Other LAG resources

The Lead Ammunition Group welcomes new insights and opinions on the evidence above

We welcome new sources of information, especially peer reviewed studies and reports from around the world. Information based on direct personal experience of using non-lead ammunition is also of interest to us. Please use the form below to give precise references and sources of new information if possible. Please note that although we will read all comments we may not be able to reply to all.